Modern approaches for innovative strategies’ administration: the comparison of Russian and international experience.
History of theory and practice of administration as well as leadership styles are reviewed. Evolution of the organizational structure is shown comprising the period from 1900 till present. Changes of technological waves within D.Kondratiev’s Theory during the XX and the beginning of XXI centuries are shown in connection with evolution of administration approaches. The role of interrelations “government-university-business” in the process of development of knowledge-based economy is reviewed within “The Triple-Helix Theory”.
The specificity of administration models existing in the USSR (before 1990s) and Russia (after 1990s) is provided. The transition period in 1990s in Russia was marked with the removal of “Army” as a main actor in bilateral relations with government and industry and a conversion to the triple-sided relations “government-university-business” as a National Innovation System had been started to form. This triggered the management system change. At the present time, significant differentiation of management quality has occurred. It also varies at different types of enterprises (exporting and-non-exporting, with and without participating of international owners and etc.). The modern tendency of conjoined usage of administration innovations and investments and technological innovations is revealed.
While Russia is still a country with a transitive economy, the “delay” in the Kondratiev’s wave is present, so the traits of 3rd, 4th, and 5th technological waves co-exist, while developed countries have been passing to the 6th technological wave. As biotechnology is recognized as a main driver in up-coming wave, it is crucial for Russia to use it actively. The strong scientific school in Russia and leading the USSR’s position in biotech could pledge the prospective innovation growth in XXI century.
The Republic of Tatarstan case
The specificity of the innovative policy of Tatarstan Republic is demonstrated in the article. Since 2010, in the region the formation of biotechnological clusters has been started. The region comprises world-wide scientific schools (Kazan State University, Kazan State Technological University, Arbuzov’s Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry and others), experienced manufacturers of biotech products (ethanol production plants, brewery, dairy products, pharmaceuticals). Moreover, the innovation infrastructure was actively created in the last 5 years in the Republic. The Technopark Idea, the Investment and Venture Fund of the Republic of Tatarstan, the consulting company “Pulsar Venture” and some others are the main units of this innovation structure.
The results of the 6th (2010) contest “The 50 Best Innovation Ideas of Tatarstan” and the “IDEA-1000” program (the winners are financed by Investment and Venture Fund) are systemized. The analysis of participants’ activity, projects’ branch-wise focus is done.
The European approach
Europe is, in many ways, the birthplace of innovation. The industrial revolution, the first major technological developments-such as the railways, the university and the corporate laboratory – were all pioneered in Europe prior to the 20th century. During the 20th century, there was a clear shift of leadership to the US and the rapid development of Japan. We are nevertheless witnessing a renaissance
In EU innovation performance in recent years. The 2008 European Scoreboard shows that the EU has been catching up or overtaking the US in most indicators of innovation performance in the last five years, and that European countries such as Sweden and Finland are firmly established as top global innovation performers (innovation Europe,2009)
In parallel, public policies to support innovation in European countries and at the level of the European Union have expanded dramatically. Since its inception in the 1980s, the Framework Program for Research and Technological Development has developed into one of the largest international programs in the world with a budget of over € 50bn from 2007 to 2013.
Actually, the challenging economic times present extraordinary opportunities for enhancing the competitiveness of organizations that have the ability to be responsive to changes, question certainties, adjust their mindset and re-orientate activities, move physically, find new partnerships, outsource non-core business and the like.
Standing alone is not an option, not for entrepreneurs, not for researchers. Clusters, joint projects, common technology platforms ,and shared application facilities. Developers communities, there is an incredible number of European and global initiatives and tools, an incredible change in the real entrepreneurs behavior, and a promising growth of open and collaboration based new ventures
(European BIC Network ,Innovation EU 2010)